I have started covering some phones on the channel and whenever I talk about the phone’s cameras.
I do add a bit of extra information here in there like on the red note six pro unboxing video I said how a wider aperture of a lens makes the final image brighter, and many of you guys responded positively to that particular piece of info that’s.
When I figured you guys would also be interested to see me explain all basic terms related to camera and photography in general I promise I won’t go too technical here everything will be put across in simple terms like the title suggests before we begin let me quickly introduce myself I am Kabir this is Baskent Sanaltur.if you find this video informative when useful let’s start with the most basic most popular term camera now.
When you say camera, it’s usually a combination of two things sensor and lens it’s not just with DSLR or any professional camera even a smartphone camera has a sensor and lens the difference is on a DSLR you can change lenses for more versatility but on smartphones the lenses are fixed.
That’s why these days we are seeing multiple cameras on phones so that lenses with different capabilities are all available to use on the same device now the amount of light that goes through the lens and hits the sensor it’s called exposure.
It’s the little meaning how much a sensor is exposed to light that’s exposure this exposure is decided by a combination of three things shutter speed aperture and ISO shutter speed is the amount of time the sensor is exposed to light as in if you set it to one-tenth of a second if this is the sensor and this is the shutter opens for one-tenth of a second and then closes.
So, it’s like that’s it so for the moment let’s forget about aperture and ISO let’s keep them constant and just change the shutter speed and see what kind of difference it makes the shutter speed of this image is one thousandth of a second this one one five hundredths of a second this one hundredth of a second and this one-twentieth of a second .
So, in broad daylight, even one-twentieth of a second is too much time. So what is aperture decides the amount of light that enters the lens in a given amount of time?
Okay, do you see these blades moving inside the glass so when they close down the gap at the center is so small so the amount of light entering the lens is very less but as we increase their pressure?
The blades open up, and the amount of light going and increases as well once again on DSLRs and mirrorless cameras you can change the aperture on this particular lens.
I am using the aperture can be varied from F 3.5 to f-16 F 3.5 is the widest f-16 is the narrowest yep broader the number smaller the gap but on smartphones the opening of the lens is generally fixed the only two exceptions are galaxy s 9 and galaxy note 9 wait there’s also an opah phone the r17 Pro .
I guess it also has variable aperture the 2 – aperture values available are F 1 point 5 and F 2 point 4 next is oh it’s the sensitivity of the sensor once again let’s see how it practically works as you increase the sensor captures the ISO more amount of light but growing it also introduces a lot of noise here’s the comparison of images short at iso 125 and iso 3200 the photos are equally bright because for the left-hand side image I set the shutter speed to 1/4 of a second while for the other painting.
It’s one-sixtieth of a second so so there if you can adjust the shutter speed and aperture to bring in more light why do we even need ISO okay the reason is we can only change the other parameters to a certain extent there are some limitations let me explain we should 99% of the images handheld without any additional equipment like a tripod or anything and our hands tend to shake a bit they cannot stay absolutely stable even for one second there will be a still shake and it will reflect in the final image .
There are a few pictures shot at one-second shutter speed every single movie has a bit of blur due to camera shake it’s inevitable usually the maximum shutter speed for a blur-free image is around one-tenth of a second for a typical smartphone.
If the lighting is good one-tenth of a second is more than enough in fact it’s too long, but under low light it’s usually not enough and when the aperture is also at its most comprehensive and still the image is too dark like here on the one plus 60 shutter speed is around one-tenth of a second aperture is F 1.7 still the picture looks quite bleak.
That’s when ISO comes into play yes there will be noise in the image of you increase ISO, but at least the image will be using it won’t be dark, and camera shake is not the only limitation for long shutter speed it also depends on what you are trying to capture if it’s a moving bus or car then set it to one-tenth of a second will end up blurring the subject sometimes people intentionally .
Increase the shutter speed to like three or four seconds to capture this kind of images light trails so what happens here is during those three seconds the light source travels from here to here, so the entire trail is captured.
So anyway you get it right the relationship between aperture shutter speed and ISO now depending on the scene you need to adjust the parameters accordingly and so
next thing is optical image stabilization remember I said the maximum shutter speed for a blurred free images around one-tenth of a second for a typical smartphone well if the smartphone has voice then you could go higher higher as in one-sixth of a second one fourth of a second the reason for this is OS mixture a dedicated motor inside the camera the engine makes sure to compensate for minor shakes note the word small so if you’re capable of getting a blurred free shot at one by ten shutter speed without OAS then with OAS you can probably go up to one fourth or even one third of a second maybe even one second .
If your phone’s OS is excellent and you manage to keep your hands super stable so now if you have completely understood the term exposure now.
I am sure you’ve heard of terms underexposed and overexposed if you don’t know what they mean share me out let’s pull up a picture a typical photo should ideally have both highlights and shadows appropriately exposed like this one weight highlights and shadows.
Okay, the brighter parts of the image are called the highlights, and the darker regions are called the shadows.
So in this image, these are all the highlights, and these are the shadows here highlights shadows hope you got it so let’s pull up another photo you see what’s wrong with this image this part the highlights are blown out there is no detail nothing is visible.
It’s all just pure white, so we say this part of the image the highlights are overexposed similarly in this image some parts the shadows are way too dark which again leads to loss of detail in those regions, so we say the shadows are underexposed one of these issues happens when the scene.
You are trying to capture a very bright object and a very dark object sometimes people intentionally underexpose the subject for something like a silhouette here example, so underexposing or overexposing a scene doesn’t always mean it’s terrible exposure.
If you’re creative and make something cool out of it, it doesn’t matter, but typically in most scenarios, we should try to get the best out of both highlights and shadows which brings us to the next term dynamic range dynamic range is the difference between the lightest tones and the darkest tones of an image .
I know a single line doesn’t explain it so as always we’ll go deeper let’s say a scene has these tones of light the shadows of the scene are as dark as this and the highlights of the scene are as bright as this a camera may not be able to capture everything perfectly.
When we tap to focus FPS or frames per second once again it will take an entire video to explain FPS entirely but here’s the short version a video is made up of multiple photos the photos are called as frames here.
so in a 60 FPS video every second has 60 images in a 30 FPS video there are 30 images displaying every second as the number of frames goes up the video looks smoother but for regular usage the most common values are 24 FPS 30 FPS and 60 fps I think with that I have covered almost everything if you’ve got any doubts or queries feel free to let me know in the comment section
I’ve put so much effort into the making of this post, so I want everybody to feel satisfied like I want you guys to feel you-you guys have learned something from this I will reply with an explanation – whichever comment you post I also have an Instagram account dedicated for smartphone photography